If you are going to buy headphones, you obviously have a price range. with a different price, it offers different features so you need to know what feature makes you suitable for your gaming & music experiences. It also can be a bit confusing with all those options, so you need to know how to compare them.
For starters, you need to know what kind of sound you want,
High bass, excellent treble or clarity, and good mids, etc.
That’s an important factor, as many headphones are specially designed for specific uses.
After that, you can decide on basis of the following factors;
1. Over Ear / on Ear
These tell about the size of the earcup,
Over-Ear headphones have a bigger earcup size, cover your ear completely, and hence, are better for noise cancellation, while on-ear ones have a smaller cup size and don’t cover your ear.
Generally, sensitivity is around 100 dB/mW. It ranges from 90 dB/mW to 115 dB/mW. It is better to stay around 105 dB/mW
3. Driver Size
A Driver is something that converts electricity into sound waves and is specified in mm ( Eg. 30mm ). More the driver size, louder your headphones are, HOWEVER, this isn’t always true.
Also, more number of drivers can make different portions of the output sound better. Generally, driver sizes range from 9-16 mm in earphones. If you are into EDM, Then 14/15/16mm is perfect for you. But if you do not like electronic music, and if you are more of an acoustic lover, then 14 mm is the outer limit for your driver size.
4. Frequency Range
This is a simple measure of the frequency range of the output of headphones.
Eg. 17 Hz to 20 kHz.
The lower the value on the left, the better the bass sections will sound.
The Higher the value on the right, the better the treble would be.
In toto, a bigger range means better lows and highs.
The lower the impedance, the better it is (generally). Generally, earphones have either impedance ranging from 12 ohms to 35 ohms. Now it also depends on your phone. Most of the phones nowadays have 12 ohms impedance or even adjustable impedance. But some old phones have 32 Ohms impedance. using 12 ohms Earphones for a 16 ohms compatible device may damage the device over time. Using 32 ohms earphones for 16 ohms devices is not a problem. A typical good impedance is 32 ohms.
6. Build Quality/ Connector/ Wire Type
Metal ones are durable than plastic ones usually,
Flat wires are better than normal wires. You can check wire length too.
Gold Plated connectors are better for long use and are more noise resistant have 3.5mm connectors
7. Open/Closed Back
Open or Closed back refers to the back of the earcups being open or sealed.
Closed back headphones offer better noise isolation and Open back headphones have more sound leakage and let in more ambient noise, and hence sound more natural to some people.
I hope this solves all your queries, and if this answer needs additions and improvements, do suggest edits!